Assessment of risk factors associated with malaria transmission in Tubu Village, Northern Botswana
Chimbari, Moses John
Ngwenya, Barbara Ntombi
PublisherHindawi Publishing Corporation, http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mrt/
RightsThis is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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This study investigated potential risk factors associated with malaria transmission in Tubu village, Okavango subdistrict, a malaria endemic area in northern Botswana. Data was derived from a census questionnaire survey, participatory rural appraisal workshop, field observations, and mosquito surveys. History of malaria episodes was associated with several factors: household income (P < 0.05), late outdoor activities (OR = 7.016; CI = 1.786-27.559), time spent outdoors (P = 0.051), travel outside study area (OR = 2.70; CI = 1.004-7.260), nonpossession of insecticide treated nets (OR = 0.892; CI = 0.797-0.998), hut/house structure (OR = 11.781; CI = 3.868-35.885), and homestead location from water bodies (P < 0.05). No associations were established between history of malaria episodes and the following factors: being a farmer (P > 0.05) and number of nets possessed (P > 0.05). Eave size was not associated with mosquito bites (P > 0.05), frequency of mosquito bites (P > 0.05), and time of mosquito bites (P > 0.05). Possession of nets was very high (94.7%). Close proximity of a health facility and low vegetation cover were added advantages. Some of the identified risk factors are important for developing effective control and elimination strategies involving the community, with limited resources.
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